PLATE XLVII. - "GRACIE," OPEN SAILING BOAT.

Gracie is a rowboat 12 ft. long and 34 in. beam, designed and built by her owner, an amateur and a novice in boat building, Mr. E. A. Leopold of Norristown, Pa. The only guide, both in designing and building, was the first edition of "Canoe and Boat Building for Amateurs," and the boat was intended only for rowing and fishing on the Schuylkill River, a narrow and winding stream with very squally and variable winds, running through Norristown, a short distance from Philadelphia. The boat is a lapstreak, weighing 60lbs. when first completed, with a keel 1 in. square, and fitted up with Allen's bow-facing oars. During the first year, 1885, she was used solely for pleasure rowing, duck shooting and fishing, and light enough to be handled conveniently. The next season a small sail was added, with several styles of leeboards, but the latter were in turn discarded for a variety of weather grip, while the sail grew to 59 ft., some very fair sailing being done toward the latter part of the season. In 1887 the sail was increased to 85 ft., as shown, while the weather grip was improved after many trials.

Thus rigged Gracie has raced against some fast boats of much greater size and power, and sailed by full professional crews, she sailing singlehanded and without ballast. She started thirteen times and won three firsts and three seconds in 1887, a very good record when the relative sizes and the reputation of the tuckups are considered. Of course she has had a good allowance, but it is hard to say whether it is too much all things considered. At first the crew of one sat on the floor, then two cushions were added, replaced a little later by a seat 5 in. below gunwale, which seemed very high at first. It was soon evident that the crew could sit far out to windward, and with more comfort, while the pad, sewn in the back of the coat, to protect the backbone when sitting inside, was discarded. The next move was to place a seat, canoe fashion, across the gunwale, a very great improvement, as a better command of the boat is obtained with less effort. In sailing with but two sails the area was too small for racing, while the balance was bad, the boat constantly luffing. The addition of a jib cured both faults, the boat being faster except when free, and steering to perfection. In every puff she will eat herself to windward without a touch of the tiller, only a slight motion of the body forward or aft being necessary to luff her up or throw her head off. It is to this that she owes much of her gain, as little steering with the rudder is needed to make her work well in the constantly varying puffs that rush down from the hills in all directions. She is sailed without a fly, such as is used by most of the other boats, as it is very deceptive. In running free or in tacking the rudder is used, but most of the steering is done by the body only. The boat's worst point of sailing is before the wind, her best reaching. She receives, about 9min. in five miles from boats 15 ft.x14 ft. 6 in., and sailed by four or five men hanging out to windward by means of ropes. The dimensions of Gracie are as follows:

Length extreme			12 ft.
Beam				 2 ft. 10 in.
Depth, amidships		 1 ft.
	 at ends		 1 ft.  8 in.
Mainmast, from stem		 1 ft.
	    above deck		 5 ft. 10 in.
	    diameter, deck	1-1/2 in., 	head	1-1/4 in.
Main boom			 8 ft.  5 in.
	diameter		       1-3/4 in.
Yard				12 ft.  4 in.
	diameter			1-1/8 in. and 3/4 in.
Batten			 	 8 ft.  5 in.
Mizenmast, above deck		 8 ft.  9 in.
Mizenmast, diameter 		       1-1/2 in. and 3/4 in.
from stem		 	 9 ft.  7 in.
Mizen boom 			 5 ft.  8 in.
Batten				 4 ft. 10 in.
Bowsprit outboard		 4 ft. 6-1/2 in.
Jib, or luff			 7 ft. 6 in.
foot and leech, each		 5 ft. 3 in.

The jib halliard and downhaul are in one length, the bight belayed to a cleat on the port side, a small club is laced to the foot of the jib. The mainmast and boom are of bamboo, mainboom yellow pine, mizenmast of white pine. The mainsail is fitted to reef to a lateen by means of a jaw at B on the boom, so placed that no change of the halliard is necessary. The batten is fitted with cleats, C C C C, of spring brass, with a single reef point opposite each. The boom is lifted, a reef point made fast by one turn about the cleat, then the boom is shifted until the second jaw engages the mast. The other reef points may then be made fast at leisure, though in a short squall the jib is dropped, the mainboom made fast by but one reef point, and shifted to set by the inner jaw. The mizen is never reefed. In making the sails the spars were bent to position on the floor and the shape marked, then the stuff, a single width of sheeting, was cut and sewn. The weather grip, adopted after many experiments, is 3 ft. 7 in. on top. 2 ft. on bottom and 1-1/2 in. deep, being immersed 10 in. The top edge is 5/8 in. thick, bottom 1/4 in. The distance from side is 2 ft. 4 in. and the immersed area 295sq. in. A keel has also been added, 4 in. deep in all, of which the lower half is lead, 25lbs. The area of keel is 335sq. in., or with grip 630sq. in. The grip is hung from the sockets for the rowlocks by two cross pieces of wood in the form of an X, riveted where they cross and also to the top of the grip. The boat does not point as close as some of her competitors, but goes enough faster to make up for it, making sometimes five tacks to their four. The table of offsets is as follows, both ends being exactly alike:

Table of Offsets - Open Sailing Boat Gracie
StationsDeck,
Height
Half-Breadths
DeckNo. 1No. 2No.3No. 4
0 and 121  80401 01........
1 and 111  535432 241607
2 an 101  339672 64525
3 and 91  21  06112 108252
4 and 81  11  31  21 1  1211686
5 and 71  021  43 1  41  321  22117
61      1  5 1  461  411  3 1  06

In the winter 1887-8 a plate board of thin steel was added, the rig was changed to a single lug of 86 ft., rigged as in Plate XLVII., and a light horizontal wheel was fitted directly on the rudder head, in place of the tiller, all these changes being for the better.


PLATE XLVIII - "CLIO," HALF DECKED SAILING BOAT.

Toronto Bay, on Lake Ontario, is the home of a fleet of small boats, and much racing is done there through the season. Clio was the champion in 1887 and is a good example of her class. She is of pine, lapstreak, of 5/16 in. plank, and is 16 ft. long, 3 ft. 8 in. beam, and decked for 4 ft. 6 in. forward, 2 ft. aft, and with waterways of 4 to 6 in., the coaming being 3 in. high. The leading dimensions are:

Mast, deck to head			16 ft.
	from stem			 3 ft.
	diameter, 		deck 5 in., head 1 in.
Bowsprit, outboard			5 ft. 6 in.
Boom					18 ft.
Yard					10 ft. 6 in.
Spinaker 	boom			15 ft.
		hoist			14 ft.
Jib,		luff. 			14 ft.
		foot 			 8 ft.
		leech			12 ft.
		area, square feet. 	49
Mainsail,	foot			17 ft. 6 in.
		luff			10 ft.
		head			10 ft.
		leech			19 ft.	9 in.
		tack to peak		19 ft. 6 in.
		clew to throat		19 ft. 6 in.
		area, square feet	190

The sails are of light drill, the roping on leech only extending as high as the reefs. The centerboard is of 3/16 in. iron, weighing 85lbs., 4 ft. long and 3 ft. 3 in. deep. It is sharpened on the forward edge. The boat is double-ended, so the main sheet works on a high traveler over the tiller.


PLATE XLIX. - SMALL DINGHEYS.

The larger boat shown in Plate XLIX. is a cross between a canoe and a sneakbox, intended as a tender to a small yacht, the object being to obtain something narrow enough to fit into the yacht's gangway, ready for use at all times and also stiff and safe. The features of this boat are a "shovel nose" to facilitate towing when preferred, rather small beam, well held fore and aft, long flat floor, quick bilge and high side with a light deck and coaming in canoe fashion. The shape of the moulds at three cross sections are shown by the dotted lines. She is 9 ft. long, 2-1/2 ft. wide, 1 ft. deep in center with a sheer of 2 in., and supplied with an iron centerboard and triangular sail 7 ft. on foot, head and leech. The board is of 1/4 in. boiler iron with 1 ft. vertical drop. The sail is set upon a short stump pole after the plan of the Lord Ross lateen for canoes.

A boat of the ordinary style, but extremely serviceable, is also shown in the diagrams. From these it will be seen she possesses great width, with long, flat floor and high sides, tumbling home at the stern and along the side. This tender is remarkable for the load she carries and for her stiffness, which makes her a more reliable and useful adjunct than many dingeys twice the length. She is only 6 ft. 6 in. long over all, with an extreme beam of 3 ft. 1-1/2 in. Her fault is towing heavily when sailing fast, and the difficulty of stowing on deck on account of her width.


PLATE L. - SPORTING BOATS.

The larger drawing represents a boat for ducking and shooting, thus described by her builder:

She shows but little above the water, draws but little, and so can be used in shoal water, can easily be transformed into a capital blind by using a little grass, weed, or brush on the deck. She is not easily turned over, and a person can shoot from any position in her, which he cannot do in a canoe. I know this from experience, as I have spent many a day in one.

In the first place, to get frames or ribs lay out on the floor a cross section both ways of the boat, full size; lay off the ribs or frames a foot apart the whole length, and taking the measure of each one on the horizontal plan gives you the length, and in the perpendicular section the breadth. Then on the ends leave the width of the sides, which in my boat is only 12-1/2 in. Then take a strip of thin stuff, and from a dot that you make for the width on each side of the center spring the strip to the width of sides at each end, top and bottom, and you have the curves for the ribs. Saw out the center as far as the cockpit comes, and you have the forms. Stay them to the floor, and put on the bottom first.

Material for frames and ribs 1/2 in. oak, also for the sides, which are only 1-1/2 in. wide. Screw the sides to the ribs, stem and sternpost with 7/8 in. No. 6 wire brass screws. It is now ready for the bottom. Use 3/16 in. oak ripped to 6 in. in width, and where each joint comes use a batten 3/16 by 1-1/2 in., clinched through about 1-1/2 in. apart with brass escutcheon pins, driving them through on the face of a hammer or piece of iron.

Use plenty of white lead on the battens and on the edge of the sides. Fasten the covering to the ribs and sides with 5/8 in. No.1 wire screws and escutcheon pins. For floor to the cockpit use 3/8 in. pine, and the washboards to cockpit 3/8 in. black walnut worked up and down and screwed to a strip let into the top of the frames, and at the bottom by strips put between the ribs. The midship section (No.3) shows it in detail.

Amount of material about 100 ft. of 3/16 in. oak, 20 ft. of 1/2 in. oak, enough 7/8 in. oak for stem, sternpost and keel, 12 ft. of 3/8 in. pine for floor, and enough material for the washboards, which can be black walnut, pine, oak, or whatever a person chooses, 1-1/2 gross of 7/8 in. No.6 wire brass scews, 3 gross of 5/8 in. No. 1 wire brass screws, and 8oz. of stout brass escutcheon pins 1/2 in. long. This is all that is required but paint.

I shall rig my boat to sail, using two legs of mutton sails, sharpie rig, and also to row. The oarlocks will want to be placed on the outside and raised up high enough to clear the washboards, which can be done by a block or an iron, the boat being so wide it can be used with quite a long oar, and by a good oarsman it can be sent along very fast.

The smaller boat is for a similar purpose, but is built of canvas, as follows: The ribs and long strips are made of oak 7/8 by scant 1/4 in.; the ribs are placed 5 in. apart, and there are six long strips on each side, and two more 8 ft. long to fill up the larger space in the middle. Where each strip and rib cross they are clinched together with a copper nail. The gunwale strips are 7/8 square, and each rib is let into them and nailed with two copper nails. Bring the canvas over the dado in the stem and stern, and put in a spline; then put on a keel made of oak outside of the canvas and screw it to the center keelson. The cockpit is made of half-inch black walnut screwed to the gunwale strips, and has a piece 1/4 by 1 in. screwed on top on the sides and back, so that it leaves 1/2 in. projection. In front use a piece 1/2 in.. by 3 in.

The seat is made of two 7/8 in. pine pieces, 3 in. wide, screwed to the ribs, and the top is rabbeted 1/2x1/2, and the top is made of 2 in. by 1/2 in. pine strips placed 1 in. apart and cleated together.

The deck is raised 1 in. in center of boat, so that it sheds the water, both sideways and endways.

Bring the canvas around the boat and nail it on top of gunwale, and the deck the same, and then put a neat 1/2 in. half-round moulding on top of the tacks, so that it makes a neat job.


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