PLATE XXX. - 16x29 RACING CANOE. DESIGNED BY W.P. STEPHENS.
["Vagabond"]

This canoe was designed early in 1888 by the author as a racing craft, to be sailed without ballast; the displacement being limited to not over 275lbs. The aim has been to preserve a good area of load water plane and breadth, without too much displacement on the one hand or the sharp V sections of some "no ballast" canoes on the other, and to make a canoe that should be at the same time fast and yet fairly comfortable to sail. The design could easily be adapted to a larger canoe, say 16x30, to carry moderate ballast, by widening after planking, and building up the sheer line an inch or a little over, making at the same time the displacement greater by l00lbs. and the draft nearly an inch more. The canoe has been completed and will be raced during the season of 1888. She will carry the sails shown in Plate XXIX., with a very light plate board and brass drop rudder. As she is designed solely for sailing the well will not be as shown, but simply a circle of 18 in. diameter, closed by a watertight canvas bag made fast around the coaming, so that in the event of a complete capsize no water can get below. The deadwood at the ends has been cut away far more than is common, but the displacement is somewhat reduced thereby, more being allowed in the middle of the boat; the immersed surface is much reduced; and easy turning power insured, the full length on waterline being at the same time retained.

Table of Offsets, 16x29 Racing Canoe
StationsHeightsHalf Breadths
DeckRab'tKeelDeck10 in.8 in.6 in.4 in. 2 in.Rabbet
01  34........ 0  01010101.... ....04
11  2227 23 3327252112 ....04
21  141412 62555412711 06
31  050505 8471726246 2511
411702....103 109282664214
5112........117 1151111018456 14
6107........1  11 1  11  04116102 7214
7104........1  2 1  171  141  07 1158514
8102........1  23 1  231  221  16 1  059414
9101........1  24 1  241  231  21 1  079614
101001....1  2 1  21  221  17 1  069214
111010301 1  171  171  15 1  111167612
121030604 1  061  061  02 113945211
1310612111106 9785652107
1411321481 9464523405 05
151  012722 443632111.... 04
161  1....301 01010101....04
[There are at least 3 apparent errors in this table. It is left as an excercise to for the reader to figure them out. Yet another argument for lofting... DJM]

The dimensions are:

Length					16 ft.
Beam, extreme					29 in.
	l.w.l.					25-3/4 in.
Draft						4-1/8 in.
Freeboard					6 in.
Sheer, bow					5-1/2 in.
	 stern					3 in.
Displacement				256.75lbs.
Area midship section			48 sq. ft.
Displacement per in. immersion	109lbs.
	       at 5 in. draft, about	370lbs.
Area lateral plane			4.37 sq. ft.
     centerboard			2.17 sq. ft.
	 Total				6.54 sq. ft.
L.W. plane				19.60 sq. ft.
C. B. from stem				8 ft.
C. L. R. from Stem			7 ft. 10-3/4ln.
	   inc. board			7 ft. 5 in.


PLATES XXXI. AND XXXII. -18x36 CANOE "IONE."

The canoe Ione was designed in 1887 by Mr. E. T. Birdsall, of New York, and built by Bradley, of Watertown, N.Y.

She is 18 ft. long by 3 ft. wide and is smooth built, of 1/4 in. plank; keel of white oak l-1/4 in. thick; stem and sternpost of hackmatack; planking of cedar; deck, mahogany; coaming, walnut, flared; Radix board of largest size, which is rather small for a boat of this length. She carries about 125 ft. of sail and 100lbs. of lead cast to fit close to the garboards, no shifting ballast. With this lead in and sail set, one can sit outside of the coaming on the deck to leeward and not get wet, the sails and spars weighing 50lbs., and the usual crew over 150lbs. In a beam wind in smooth water with full sail and two persons weighing together 340lbs. hanging out to windward she has beaten catboats of equal waterline length. When driven in heavy weather with the above load to windward and reefed she is quite wet, as she goes through the waves when they are short and choppy, and the crests thus cut up come aboard.

In common with all narrow and shoal boats she rolls when going to leeward in a seaway. The under-water body conforms to the wave form curve of areas, other recognized principles of design as set forth by Dixon Kemp being adapted to this special case as far as possible.

Table of Offsets - Canoe Ione
StationsDepthsHalf Breadths
DeckRabbetKeelDeck1210864 2Keel
fore side of stem
02       ........ 01 0101010101 01....
11  10321436 27242140704 04
21  861612 715554232 210605
31  7214191 8375665436 1407
41  55105 1  02111029276 55251
51  43104 1  221  111  03 11410184315
61  350602 1  351  311  24 1  151  0310621
71  240501 1  451  431  37 1  321  21        7722
81  7704.... 1  531  511  46 1  421  321  14 1023
91  1404.... 1  561  551  53 1  5  411  26111 24
101  1304.... 1  6 1  571  55 1  531  451  32 11624
111  150501 1  561  551  53 1  51  421  26 11122
121  20703 1  521  511  47 1  421  321  14 922
131  271105 1  431  411  36 1  31  15115614
141  371206 1  251  231  17 1  1113823212
151  51511 1  04115119776 51507
161  651713 937566544 240605
171  724115 543225212 010202
after side of stern post
181  10....20101 0101010101....

During the season of 1887 she was sailed with the ballast and sails shown in Plate XXXII., with either one or two as crew, but a jib of 30 ft. will be added, cutting the present mainsail down the line of the mast, thus making it a gaff sail all abaft the mast, the bowsprit to be 4 ft. outboard and the jib to trim aft of the mast and be capable of being set and taken in from the cockpit. When sailing alone, in addition four 25lb. pigs of lead cast in the form of a truncated pyramid and covered with canvas and roped, will be carried to be shifted to windward.

Ione has no watertight compartments, but her owner proposes to fit them in her. The sails are of Polhemus twill, about 4oz. A 6lb. Chester anchor and 25 fathoms of 12-thread manilla has held on in 15 fathoms of water with a good jump on, a lee-going tide and two 15x30 canoes fastened to mizenmast. All the sailing of the above boat has been done in Newark and New York bays and around Sandy Hook and Staten Island. The yards are egg-shaped and the booms are square to facilitate the reefing gear.


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