THE PROGRESS OF CANOEING.

In the three years that have passed since "Canoe and Boat Building" was first published, the growth of canoeing, as well as other forms of boat sailing, has been very rapid, and the changes in the craft have been many, some marked improvements being made. The principles of building, treated in the first part of this hook, are unaltered, and in preparing the present edition the improvements in model, rig and fittings have been described in detail in connection with the best examples of the new canoes, such as Lassie, Pecowsic, Notus and the two new designs.

The year 1886 was a most important one in canoe racing, being marked by the first meeting between the "heavy ballast" English canoes, sailed with crew below, and the various American models with crews seated on deck. Canoe racing was reduced to a science in England some years before it became at all popular in America, the result being that the British canoes were far superior in fitting up and mechanical details to the American craft. As in the case of yachting, the various details of the English canoes have been used and thoroughly tested in this country, with the result of the improvement of some features and the total rejection of others, the leading canoes of the A. C. A. now constituting a distinctly marked national type. The result of the races sailed in New York and on the St. Lawrence in 1886 has been to show that both the "no ballast" canoe and the craft with a moderate amount of ballast, say under 100lbs., is much faster than the Royal C. C. type with upward of 300lbs. One reason for the poor performance of the latter in American waters appears to be that the type was developed on a narrow river and a small pond, where the wind is very puffy and unsteady; and further, the courses are very short. To meet these requirements, the canoes have relied on a large amount of ballast to carry a lofty sail, necessary to utilize the wind between the banks and to make the canoe safe in the flawy breezes, while owing to the many turns required when a number of rounds of a short course have to be made, the maneuvering powers of the boats were developed to the fullest extent, in fact, so far as to seriously impair the running and reaching. No better example of this can be found than the wonderful working of the Nautilus in Mr. Baden-Powell's hands; with her weight and rockered bottom she turned within her own length, and was as completely under the control of her owner as a bicycle would be. In marked contrast to this were some of the American canoes, which, though far faster off the wind, or even when on a long leg to windward, were slow and uncertain in tacking and maneuvering generally.

Until they were defeated at the A. C. A. meet of 1886, the English canoeists held tenaciously to the inside position, lying down in the boat, and thus were compelled to rely on lead for the necessary stability, but while in America both Nautilus and Pearl were sailed from the deck with the reduction of about 150lbs. of ballast, and in both cases the improvement in speed was most noticeable: in fact if the two had been well sailed from the first in the deck position, with little ballast besides the board, they would have made a very much better showing in the International races. So far as canoes are concerned, it is certain that the day of heavy ballast and displacement is past, and it is equally certain that if the value of the deck position had been understood a few years since in England and the races been sailed over more open courses than the Thames and Hendon Lake, the "heavy ballast" canoe of the Royal C. C. would never have come into existence. Since their return both Mr. Baden-Powell, of the Nautilus, and Mr. Stewart, of the Pearl, have designed and sailed with success canoes of the American type, and with the growth of canoe racing throughout Great Britain that will follow the success of the newly organized British Canoe Association, the canoes are likely to approach that type and the early English canoes of a dozen years ago.

The question of no ballast vs. moderate ballast is by no means so conclusively settled, and though the "no ballast" canoes have won the majority of races in the past two seasons, there is still reason to believe that a moderate amount of ballast is desirable, perhaps part of it being in the form of a centerboard of 40lbs. or under. The ordinary canoe is designed to displace besides her hull, spars, sails and crew, the stores and outfit for a cruise, a weight of about 100lbs. This weight is in a clumsy and bulky form, much of it stowed comparatively high, and no man would carry it simply as ballast for racing, but his canoe is supposed to sail at her best when trimmed with this load for cruising; now when racing, with larger sails, it would seem but proper that the displacement, freeboard and load waterline should be kept as before, loose and clumsy ballast such as blankets and provisions being replaced by shot bags beneath the floor. No other class of vessel is expected to sail exactly as well under two very different conditions, and it is not clear why a canoe should do so. The addition of 100lbs. of ballast does not necessitate appreciably fuller lines, the model may be as sharp and clean cut as in any of the "no ballast" canoes, and though in the past the idea of lead ballast has to a great extent been associated with bulk and full lines, there is still a wide field for the Class B canoeist, especially on open waters, to study and experiment in before giving his order for a Pecowsic.

Looking at the question of model, the examples given cover a wide range, from the light Pecowsic to the new design on Plates XXVII., XXVIII. and XXIX., a canoe of over 5001bs. displacement, and yet of easy form, totally different from the Pearls and the old Nautili. The newest design, a 16X29 racing canoe, Plate XXX., is intended to float a total displacement of less than 275lbs., but the same lines may be utilized in building a 16X30 canoe with 1 in. more depth, an addition to the present sheer, thus making a very fast and able canoe for both racing and cruising.

In sails, the fashion has changed to the extent of discarding old rigs without supplying anything specially good to take their place, the endeavor being to get a sail entirely abaft the mast, but at the same time easily reefed or lowered. The most successful effort in this direction is the rig shown in Plate XXIX., devised by Mr. C. J. Stevens, New York C. C. The sails used on Pecowsic, the invention of Mr. Barney, have been used by him with great success in racing; but the general demand is for a rig that will reef and lower. In the West, the sprit sail has been tried on canoes with some success, the sprit being carried down and stepping on the boom about 4 in. from the mast, thus holding the boom down. The lateen, Mohican and balance lug are just now in disfavor, canoeists being engaged in various experiments, and it is impossible to say what the outcome will be. A very good sail is shown on Plate XXVI., that of the Notus, a lowering leg of mutton. These rigs, with many details of fitting, are fully described in connection with the plates.


PLATES XIX. and XX - CLASS A CANOE "LASSIE."

The Lassie was designed as an attempt to get good speed, close windward work, a fairly light and small canoe to carry a moderate amount of ballast - always a heavy load to handle - and to be a good cruising canoe for all but very narrow and rapid waters.

She has proved herself fast under sail and paddle, easy to handle on the water and ashore, amply large enough for a man of medium height and weight, and needs but 75lbs. of ballast at the most; with all this she is very steady before the wind. She is a Class A canoe, but allowed in Class B races, and just comes within the limits of Class III paddling.

The dimensions - 15 ft.x28 in. - and the points arrived at were given to Mr. Everson, who worked out the problem in his own way, and to whom all credit for the result is due.

Two flat brass plates were used for the boards, placed as shown in the drawing, as being the best for windward results it was thought, not overlooking convenience at the same time. For cruising the after board can be dispensed with and the slot in the keel plugged. The forward plate can be removed and a wooden board substituted, thus saving about 20lbs. in dead weight. The ballast all goes below the floor, and is held in by the floor boards buttoned down. It is then in the very best place. The canoe is steady before the wind since she draws more water than the Sunbeam - unless heavily ballasted - being narrower. The motion from side to side is a very easy one, quite unlike the quick roll of a flat-floored canoe. The manipulation of the two boards takes time to acquire, so that the maximum result can be obtained. They largely decrease the work that has to be done by the rudder in single board canoes.

The sails made for the Sea Bee - a Sunbeam canoe - were used on the Lassie with the best results. Mr. Tredwen, the master mind in England on canoe sailing, has warmly commended the short boom and double head gear of this mainsail. The drawing illustrates it clearly. Mast, boom, yard and the two battens are all of exactly the same length, thus making it an easy rig to stow for the spread obtained, 75sq. ft. Very little of the sail is in front of the mast, and the yard peaks up well, both good points for windward sailing. The double purchase at the throat, single at peak, with one halliard, used as a downhaul as well, allows great strain to be put on the yard in hoisting and brings everything as taut as fiddle strings, a flat sail resulting. The topping up of the boom shown in the drawing is not quite true in fact, except when the sail is at rest, or passing over the head of the crew as in tacking or jibing. At other times the pull of the sheets brings the boom end much lower, by the give of the sails, halliards and mast; so much so in close-hauled sailing, when the canoe heels somewhat, that it is about parallel with the plane of the water-the very best position for it to take. The high-pointed coaming, 3 in. camber to deck, narrow cockpit (18 in.) and flush deck forward make the Lassie a very dry boat at all times. The dimensions are:

Length				15 ft.
Beam, extreme				28 in.
Depth at gunwale			11-1/2 in.
Sheer, Bow				6-1/2 in.
	 Stern				4-1/2 in.
Dead rise in 6 in.			1 in.
Crown of deck				3 in.
Fore side of stem to -
  Mast tubes 	1 ft. 3 in., 3ft 1/2 in., 11ft 1/2 in.
  Fore trunk, fore end	 	 3 ft.  2 in.
  Fore trunk, after end		 5 ft. 10 in.
  Coaming, fore end		 4 ft.  5 in.
  Well at deck, fore end 	 4 ft. 10 in.
  Backrests, r r                       7.5 in. and 9.3 in.
  After end of well		10 ft.  8-1/2 in.
  Bulkhead			10 ft.  9-1/2 in.
  Deck tiller			10 ft. 10  in.
  After trunk, fore end		11 ft.  2-1/2 in.
  After trunk. after end	12 ft.  9 in.
  Deck hatch, fore side		11 ft. 11 in.
  Deck hatch. after side	12 ft.  9 in.
Width of cockpit		 1 ft.  6 in.
Coaming, height at fore end	       3 in.
Coaming, height at middle	       2 in.

Waterlines, 3 in. apart; buttock and bowlines, 5 in. apart; sections 2 ft. apart, from fore side of stem; floor above garboards, 3-1/2 in.; stem and stern sided 1 in., keel sided (width) 3in; moulded (thickness) 1 in.; keel batten, 1/4 in.x4 in. at amidships; siding. 1/4in ; ribs, 1/4x5/16, spaced 5 in., 9 in. at ends; deck, l/4 in.; diameter of mast tubes, 2in; floors, 5/16 in.

References.
a, stem, hackmatack.
b, stern, hackmatack.
c, keel. oak.
d, keel batten. oak.
e, ribs, oak.
f, bulkhead, pine, 1/2 in.
g, headledges, oak.
h, sides of trunk, pine 1/2 in.
i, deck beams, pine.
k, knees, oak or hackmatack.
l, maststeps, oak.
m, coaming, oak.
n, hatch, mahogany.
o, after hatch.
p, deck hatch.
q, center strip of deck, mahog.
r, back rests. oak.
s, heel brace, oak.
t, steering pedals, oak.
u, deck tiller.
v, centerboard hinges, brass.
z, floor ledges, cedar.

The keel batten, 1/4 in. thick, is a separate piece; but it would be better if worked in one with the keel. The centerboard trunks are both below deck, closed on top and opening only on the bottom. The boards, of sheet brass, are hinged by means of two L-shaped pieces, shown at v, one on each side of the board. These pieces are each fastened to the keel by a screw from the outside. To remove the board the canoe is turned over, the two screws taken out, and the boat turned back, when the board will drop out. The fore board is of 5/16 in. brass, weighing 15lbs. The after board is of 1/8 in. brass, weighing 5lbs., and is quadrant shaped. Each is filed to a sharp edge. They are hoisted by cords, the forward pendant belaying on a cleat on after end of the trunk; the after pendant coming through the deck to a cleat on starboard side deck, abreast the canoeist. The three mast tubes are of uniform size, 2 in. inside, so the masts may be interchanged. The rudder is of 3/4 in. oak, thinned down at the edges, the yoke being a semi-circular piece with a score in it for the rudder lines, of brass chain. The foot gear consists of two oak pedals, t t, fitted to the floor boards with brass spring hinges. When two are paddling, the after man uses the braces, s s, in the floor, the back-board for the forward man being at r. The hatch, o, is made with an outside rim, fitting over the coaming and close to the deck. There is no fore bulkhead, as usually fitted, and the sliding bulkhead is also omitted, a piece, r, taking its place in supporting the hatch and carrying the back-board. The broken lines in the sectional view show the inner edges of the planking, the widths of the same at midships being given in the cross section, page 165.


PLATE XXI.-CLASS B CANOE "Sunbeam"

This canoe was built early in 1885 by James Everson for Mr. J. F. Newman for a cruising canoe. The model has since become very popular and a number of these boats were present at the meet of 1885. The boat is intended for general use in wide waters where ballast is desirable, and upward of 100lbs. of shot in bags is carried. For use in narrower waters a flatter floor would be needed, no ballast being carried. Though intended for a cruiser, the canoe has proved very fast and several of the same model have taken a place among the racers of their class. The interior arrangements are of the usual form. At d, e and f are bulkheads, that at f being movable. The well is covered with hatches, in the usual style, a a and c c are airtanks of phosphor bronze. The dimensions are:

Length						15 ft.
Beam						 2 ft.  6 in.
Depth amidships					      11 in.
Sheer at bow 7 in., at stern			       5-1/2 in.
Crown of deck					       2 in.
Distance from foreside of stem to-
	Mainmast				 1 ft.  8 in.
	Bulkhead				 4 ft.  3 in.
	Fore end of well			 4 ft. 10 in.
	After end of well			10 ft.	9 in.
	Sliding bulkhead			 9 ft.	6 in.
	Mizzenmast				11 ft.	3 in.
	After bulkhead				11 ft.	6 in.

The dimensions of frame, planking, etc., are the same as in the Lassie. The rig of the Sunbeam is two balance lugs of 70 and 35 ft. for racing, or 50 and 15 ft. for cruising.

In the fall of 1886 the afterboard and trunk were removed, a brass drop rudder was added, and the deadwood at stem and stern cut away as far as possible, the canoe being too slow in stays.


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