The first canoe of this name was designed and built by Mr. W. P. Stephens in the winter of 1877-78, being intended for a cruising boat. The dimensions were nearly the same is the present boat, but the model was quite different, with greater sheer, long bow and full quarters. She was fitted with deck hatches, sliding hatch to well, rudder, and the footgear shown in Fig. 4, Plate XVII, and was rigged as a schooner, two boom and gaff sails and jib. The rig was subsequently changed to leg of mutton, and later to balance lug. The model shown In Plate I. and II. was designed in 1880 for the same purpose as the preceding one, general cruising, and a number of canoes have been built from it.
Plate I. shows the lines of the boat, and also method of putting them on paper as explained in the chapter on designing. The dimensions and table of offsets are given on pages 13 and 22. In cruising this canoe will carry a mainsail of 45 ft., with mizzen of 18 to 20, and in racing, a mainsail of 65 to 70 sq. ft.
PLATE II. - "JERSEY BLUE," Construction Drawing.
This drawing shows the arrangement of decks, bulkheads, etc., and the general construction of the same canoe, and is described on pages 52-55.
PLATE III. - River Canoe, "RARITANIA."
This canoe was designed by Mr. W. P. Stephens in 1882, for work on small rivers and streams. She is built with a flat keel, and can be fitted with a centerboard or a false keel of wood can be screwed on. The floor is flat, the keel projects but 1/4 in., and on each side are oak bilge keels 3/4 in. square. On to these and the main keel the boat rests squarely, and may be dragged without injury. Two sails are used, either leg of mutton or lateen, the latter being the better. Their areas may be 15 and 30 ft. for cruising. Length l4 ft., beam 27 in., depth amidships 9-1/2 in., sheer at bow 3-1/2 in., sheer at stern 2-1/2 in., crown of deck 3 in.
|Table of Offsets, Canoe "Raritania".|
|8 in. waterline||....||1-3/4||5-1/2||8-1/2||11||12-1/2||13-1/4||13-1/2||13-1/2||13-1/4||12-1/4||10||6-1/2||2-1/2||....|
|6 in. waterline||....||3/4||4-1/4||7-1/2||10||12||13||13-1/4||13-1/4||13||11-1/2||8-3/4||5||1-1/4||....|
|4 in. waterline||....||....||2-1/4||5-3/4||8-1/2||11||12-1/4||12-3/4||12-3/4||12||10-1/8||7-1/8||3-1/4||....||....|
|2 in. waterline||....||....||....||3-3/8||6||9||10-5/8||11||11||10||7-3/4||4||3/4||....||....|
PLATE IV.-The Shadow Canoe "DOT."
This model was designed by ex-Com. W. L. Alden, N.Y.C.C., in 1878, and was built by Mr. James Everson. The Dot was the third of the model and was built in 1878, since which she has been widely known as a successful racing and cruising boat. Her first cruise was from New York to Rondout. in 1878, and in 1880 she made a cruise on the Susquehanna, from Binghamton to Harrisburg, in nine and a half days, since which she has made many short cruises, besides several of some length. Her first race was in the regatta of 1879, in which she was beaten by boats with larger keels. In 1880 the keel was increased to 2-1/2 in., and in 1883 to 3 in., which depth is sufficient to take her to windward, as she has won nearly every sailing-race in which she has entered, including five for the Challenge Cup, besides winning all of the sailing prizes but one in her class at Lake George in 1882. Her best run on a cruise was fifty miles in ten hours under sail and paddle, from New York down the Sound. Her owner, Mr. Vaux, was one of the first in this country to use lug sails, having two standing lugs, which were changed in 1881 for balance lugs. She was also the first boat steered with a tiller, the crew sitting upon deck.
The following are her principal dimensions: Ft In. Length over all 14 4 Beam at Waterline 30 Beam at deck 28 Depth at bow 16-1/2 Depth at stern 16-1/2 Depth amidships 9-1/2 Depth of keel 2-1/2 Distance from fore side of stem To forward hatch 1 6 2 8 To center of mainmast 2 6 To forward bulkhead 3 6 To fore end of coaming 4 6-1/2 To sliding bulkhead 8 11 To after end of well 10 3 To bulkhead 10 10 To center of mizzenmast 11 4 To after hatch 11 6-1/2 12 8-1/2 Weight of hull when in use, 93 pounds.
Table of Offsets for Canoe "DOT" Stations Depth at
Half-Breadths Diagonals Deck L.W.L No. 2 No. 3 A.B. C.D. 0 16-1/2 .... .... .... .... .... .... 1 12-3/4 6-3/4 5-1/4 4-3/8 3-1/8 7-1/2 6-3/4 2 10-1/2 11-1/4 10-3/4 9-7/8 8 12-7/8 10-3/4 3 9-1/2 13-3/8 14 13 11 15-1/4 12-1/4 4 9-1/2 14 15 13-5/8 11-1/2 15-5/8 12-1/4 5 9-3/4 13-7/8 14-1/2 13-3/8 10-5/8 15-1/4 11-1/2 6 11 12-1/8 12-1/4 10-3/4 7-1/2 13-1/2 10-1/2 7 13-1/8 7-3/4 6-1/8 4-3/4 3 8-1/2 7-1/2 8 16-1/2 .... .... .... .... .... ....
The keel, stem and stern are 1 in. thick; planking (lapstreak, 5 planks on each side), 1/4in,; decks and hatches, 1/4 in.; ribs of oak, 1/4x3/8 in., spaced 6 in. apart. Many changes have been made in the boat as experience has shown them to be necessary; the fore bulkhead, shown by dotted lines, has been removed, the fore hatch permanently fastened down, 2 in. of keel added, foremast tube shifted forward and enlarged from 1-5/8 to 2 in., the old steering gear, with a yoke on deck and one below, replaced by a yoke below deck on a vertical pivot, and the elliptical well entirely covered with hatches changed to one with a pointed, flaring coaming, with an apron. The paddle used for several seasons past has been 9 ft. long.
PLATE V. - Racing Sail of the "DOT."
The racing rig of the Dot consists of two balance lugs, of 70 ft. and 25 ft., the larger of which is shown In Plate V.DIMENSIONS OF SAILS. Main. Mizzen. Luff 6 ft. 10 in. 4 ft. Leach l0 ft. 9 in. 6 ft. 4 in. Foot 9 ft. 8 in. 5 ft. 9 in. Head 7 ft. 2 in. 4 ft. 4 in. Tack to peak 13 ft. 7 ft. 8 in. Clew to throat l0 ft. 7 in. 6 ft. 3 in. Area 70 sq ft. 25 sq. ft. Battens 24 in. apart on leach and 22 in. on luff.
When the sail is taut the ring on the yard is drawn close in to the mast, raising the yard and throwing the fore end a little further forward than it is shown. The halliard a a, is hooked into an eye on the parrel, c, (the latter made fast to the yard just forward of the mast) from which it leads through a ring on the yard thence through a block d, at the mast head, and down through a ring lashed to the mast, near the deck. from which it loads to a cleat abreast the well. The tack b b is seized to the boom just forward of the mast, and leads through a hook on the boom abaft the mast, under a hook in the deck, and to its cleats.
The parrels e e, are made fast to the battens just forward and aft of the mast, and when in place, hold the sail in to the mast, keeping it flatter, and relieving the masthead of considerable strain. The reefing gear is rigged as follows: Three deadeycs, f f f, are seized to the boom as shown. The reef line h, from the leach, is in two parts from the batten to the deadeye, one part on each side of the sail. At the deadeye. they unite into one part, leading forward along the boom, through the middle deadeye, thence through the block ,i, on fore reef line. This line g also runs down each side of the sail, through the deadeye, and is then lashed to the single block i. A pull on the hauling part (the halliard being first slacked away) brings boom and batten snugly together, the line is belayed to the cleat on the boom, and the middle reef-points l hooked together, or a third line may be added in place of the points. A similar arrangement may be rigged on the batten, drawing down a second reef. The points on the halliard where it is belayed when a reef is hauled down are marked with colored thread, so the halliard can be slacked away the proper distance. made fast, and the reef hauled in and belayed. A sling about l8 in. long has both ends seized to the boom. On this a deadeye travels, to which the sheet is fastened.
PLATE VI. - Clyde Canoe "LALOO."
The following description of the Laloo, with the drawings, was furnished by Mr. C. G. Y. King, of the Clyde C.C., a well-known canoeist, as well as an amateur designer and builder. The design differs in many respects from American models, and has never been tried in competition with them. It will be noticed that the lines, which show the inside of planking, are narrowed in amidships to allow the boat to spread in building.
Mr. King says: Talking one evening over a quiet pipe with an old canoeing friend, Charlie Livingstone, of Liverpool, we both agreed that a new design of canoe was necessary (to our ideas), and if not actually promoting canoeing, it would give us some new experience in canoes. So we set to work sketching free-hand designs, and in course of time hit upon the idea of a canoe having very full lines aft, carrying the floor well forward, so as to give the basis of a full bow which at the same time would look as if it were extra fine. Our aim was to build a canoe that would, for her size, be the stiffest under sail, quickest under paddle, and a good dry sea boat. We succeeded. The lines of accompanying drawing are the inside or skin lines.
To those who do not understand what that means, a few words will explain. The principal dimensions of the canoe are: Length, 16 ft.; beam, 31-1/2 in.; depth from inside of garboards to top of top-streak amidships, 111-3/8 in.; depth of keel, including metal band, 2-1/4 in. In setting up the frames it is a wise thing to cut them at most 1 in. less beam amidship than beam required when finished, as the thickness of the planks each aide has to be allowed for, and the boat is almost dead certain to fall out after the tie beams are removed previous to screwing down the deck.
The drawings give a sheer plan, a body plan and a deck plan. The lines A and B in all three are buttock lines. The waterlines are indicated in the body and deck plans by 1,, 2,, 3,, 4,, and cross sections in body and deck plans by 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7. The midship section is somewhat different from what is or what the writer knows as the Shadow model. The Shadow has too much tumble home and loses stability as she lies over to a breeze.
The Laloo has her greatest beam at the gunwale, and has no tumble from bow to stern, thereby increasing her stability from her waterline to her deck, and enabling her to carry an extra amount of sail. Her sail power by calculation is 56 sq. ft., and she is able to carry that spread without ballast. She can carry safely for racing purposes 114 pounds of lead, and with that amount she can carry 85 sq. ft. sail. The best style of sail to have, especially in Scotch waters, is the batten sail with a running reefing gear, which enables the canoeist to reef his sail close down while under way, and without more exertion than hauling on a cord specially arranged for the purpose.
The Laloo's rig is one lug sail of 65 sq. ft., which is a handy size for cruising or racing, and 70 pounds of lead, 40 pounds placed at fore end of well in front of the foot-steering gear, and 30 pounds placed aft the sliding bulkhead at aft end of well. To those who might contemplate building such a craft a few over-all dimensions of deck fittings might come in handy. Length over all, from bow to sternpost, l6 ft.; from bow to center of mast step, 2 ft. 10 in.; from center of mast step to fore end of well, 4 ft.; from fore end of well to aft end of well, 3 ft. 5-1/4 in. from aft end of well to aft end of hatch, 1 ft. 6-3/4 in. ; from aft end of hatch to sternpost, 4 ft.; width of well at fore end, 1 ft.; width of well at aft end, 2 ft.; width of locker hatch at fore end, 1 ft. 8 in.; width of locker hatch at aft end, 1 ft. 1 in.; height of well coamings, 1-1/2 in.; diameter of mast at deck, 2-1/4 in.; diameter of mast at head, 1-1/4 in., height of mast from deck, 10 ft. To any one studying these lines and comparing them with those of other craft, the difference will be very marked. It was predicted by those who saw the canoe under construction that she would have a heavy drag aft, but such is not the case. She enters the water with perfect sweetness and leaves it without a ripple even when running before a good breeze in a calm sea. Her stability and sail-carrying powers leave no loophole for adverse criticism. To Mr. Livingstone is all the credit due for insisting on carrying out and building these strange lines for a canoe to have. She is easy to paddle considering her 31-1/4 in. beam, and her stowage capacity is most ample for a long cruise. She is perfectly open down below, fore end aft; has no water-tight bulkheads, but has instead probably india rubber air bags fitted to her shape (before deck is screwed down at bow and stern). These bags will be about a couple of feet long, and can be inflated at will, and have more than enough buoyancy to float the canoe when full of water, and with her crew on board.
At the aft end of well is a sliding bulkhead, and by removing it and folding back the hatch-lid H, room can be made for a crew of two; or when cruising alone without a tent a comfortable couch can be obtained in a few seconds.
PLATE VII. - SAIL PLAN OF "LALOO."
This sail has an area of 60 sq. ft.; the first reef has 16 sq. ft.; second reef, 15 sq. ft. ; leaving 29 sq. ft. for a close reef when blowing hard. Figure 1 is a full sail plan, showing all the rigging necessary without being complicated. A are main halliard blocks at masthead and foot of mast; D is double block for topping lift; K is single small block for jackstay; J S, jackstay; M H, main halliard; T L, topping lifts - one on each side of sail; B, reefing battens; R, reef points; R C, forward reef cord; R C 2, after reef cord; P, loop and toggle to secure lower end of topping lift; C, cleat to receive R C 2 when reef is hauled down.
S - parrel on boom, on which runs a deadeye or block, to which is fastened main sheet. When lying close hauled the block is at the after end of S, and S helps to distribute strain on boom; when running free block is at fore end of S and main sheet does not drag in the water. M - mast. W on boom and on each batten are parrels to keep sail close up to mast so that it won't bag with the wind. W O, jack block. Figure 2 illustrates on a large scale how to fasten halliard to yard so as to dispense with the services of a traveler. T at the throat is a loop fastened to the yard through which passes a toggle on the end of the halliard. The halliard then passes round the opposite side of the mast, from which yard and sail are, is reeved through block B on yard, then through block A at masthead, then down to block at mast foot and thence to cleat. The topping lifts are toggled to boom so as to be easily detached when spinnaker is to be hoisted, spinnaker head lying ready to be fastened to either as required, the other topping lift remaining in its place.
The jackstay is rigged on the outside of the sail, so that when sail is lowered the triangular part at boom, Y Z, prevents the sail from flopping over the deck on the one side, while the mast prevents it on the other, X is a brass rod at the masthead for a fly. There are several plans by which the tail can be reefed "instantaneously." The one here shown the writer has found to work the best. Let us start at the back and follow the first reef all round. One end of the cord is secured at the back, and is rove through brass rings 3/16 diameter sewn on sail where shown, then through block at luff of first batten, then through block in line of mast, then down to a deadeye at mast foot, then to cleat wherever handiest for owner. Then the after part has to be looked to. Rig cord in the same way, starting at the clew and cleat on C at boom. This gives a very handy plan for reefing quickly if caught in a squall while racing. When the squall has passed slack out reef cords and hoist yard at once. For a good, deliberate reef while cruising it would be well to tie down reef points as well, as the extra time it takes is not wasted. It is a capital plan to have all blocks for use about the mast fastened to the mast and not to the deck, so that when one comes ashore to dismantle, the mast, sail and rigging can be removed and returned without the bother of always re-rigging.
The Laloo was designed to be sailed without a mizzen, though an after sail is of great service in mostly all weather.
PLATE VIII. - NAUTILUS RACING AND CRUISING CANOE.
For the drawings of this canoe, as well as the two following ones, and the canoe yawls, we are indebted to "Yacht and Boat Sailing." This canoe was designed by Mr. Baden-Powell, for open water cruising and for racing under the B.C.C. rules. The main objects in view were sleeping room, good sailing lines and light draft. Centerboard of plate-iron, 83 lbs. Length, l4 ft.; beam, 33 in.; depth amidship, 14-1/2 in.; sheer at bow, 7-3/4 in.; do. at stern, 5-1/4 in.; draft, 7 in.; keel, 1 in.
AA-Mast tubes. BB-Headledges. C-Centerboard. D-Fore bulkhead, with door. E-Drain pipes to compartment. F-Footyoke. G-Deckyoke. H-Handle of centerboard. I-Hauling up gear of centerboard. J-Rack for cleats. K-Fore hatch. L-After hatch. M-Seat for Paddling. N-After bulkhead, with door. 0-Floor-boards. P-Backboard for paddling. S-Sheer for rudder tricingline.
|Offsets for Canoe "Nautilus"|
|Depths||Deck to Waterline||16-1/4||14-1/2||13||11-1/2||10-1/4||9-1/2||9||8-3/4||8-1/2||8-1/2||9||9-3/4||10-3/4||12||13-3/4|
|Waterline to Rabbet||....||5||5-3/4||6||6||6||6||6||6||6||6||6||5-1/2||4-1/2||....|
|3 in. Waterline||....||1-3/4||4-1/4||7||10||12-1/4||14-1/4||15-1/2||15-1/2||14-1/2||12-1/4||9||4-1/2||1-1/2||....|
The sails are two balance lugs of 95 and 25sq. ft.
PLATE IX. - PEARL CRUISING CANOE.
The family of Pearls, designed by Mr. E. B. Tredwen, R.C.C., numbers nine different models, the design in the plate being No. 3. She is designed for open water cruising as well as racing. Dimensions: Length, 15 ft.; beam, 31-1/2 in.; depth amidships 1l in.; sheer at bow, 5 in.; sheer at stern, 3 in.
|Offsets for Cruising Canoe "Pearl No. 3"|
|Rabbet Line to Gunwale||16||14||13||12-1/4||11-3/4||11-1/2||11-1/4||11||11||11-1/8||11-1/4||11-1/2||12-1/4||13||14|
|Rise of Rabbet Line||2-1/4||1-1/4||1/2||....||....||....||....||....||....||....||....||....||1/2||1-1/4||2-1/4|
|9 in. W.L.||2-1/4||6||10||12-3/4||14-1/2||15-1/4||15-1/2||15-1/2||15-1/2||15||14||12-1/4||9-1/2||6||2-1/4|
|6 in. W.L.||1-1/2||3-1/2||7-3/4||11||13-1/4||14-1/2||15||15-1/4||15||14-1/4||13||10-3/4||7-3/4||3-1/2||1-1/2|
|3 in. W.L.||3/4||2-1/2||5-1/4||8-1/2||11-1/2||13-1/2||14||14-1/4||14||13-1/4||11-1/4||8-1/4||5-1/4||2-1/2||3/4|
PLATE X. - PEARL CANOE No. 6.
This canoe was designed to compete not only with canoes, but in the races of the Thames gigs, boats much larger than canoes, and she has been remarkably successful both with them and her own class. She is fitted with two centerboards of Muntz metal, the forward one of 68 pounds, being 5/8 in. thick. The sail carried is 105 ft. in mainsail, and about 40 ft. in mizzen, the latter being fitted to reef, by rolling on the boom. Length 14 ft., beam 33 in., depth amidships, 14 in., sheer at bow 7 in., at stern 4 in.
|Offsets for Canoe "Pearl No. 6"|
|Heights||Rabbet Line to Deck||17||15-1/2||14-3/4||14-1/4||14||14||14||14||14||14-1/8||14-3/8||14-5/8||15-1/8|
|Rise of Rabbet Line||1||1/2||1-4||....||....||....||....||....||....||....||1/4||1/2||1|
|12 in. Water Line||4-5/8||9-1/2||13||14-3/4||15-5/8||15-7/8||16||16||15-3/4||14-7/8||13-1/4||9-7/8||5-3/4|
|9 in. Water Line||3-1/2||7-5/8||11-1/2||13-7/8||15-1/8||15-5/8||15-7/8||15-7/8||15-1/2||14-1/4||12-1/8||8-1/4||4-3/8|
|6 in. Water Line||2-1/4||5-1/2||9-1/8||12-1/4||14||14-7/8||15-1/4||15-1/8||14-5/8||12-7/8||9-3/4||6-1/8||3|
|3 in. Water Line||1-1/8||3||5-5/8||8-5/8||11 (?)||12-1/2||12-7/8||12-3/4||12||9-1/8||6-1/8||3-3/8||1-1/2|