If the method of designing described be followed there will be no necessity for a model, but unless the amateur has had some practice in drafting it will be easier for him to first make a model, shaping it by eye, and then to take the lines from it. In this case the design will be started on paper, as previously described, the sheer plan completed and the deck line drawn in the half breadth plan. To make the model, a block of soft dry white pine is required of a size to correspond with the scale of the drawing. The portion below the water line will be made of several thicknesses of pine and walnut or mahogany placed alternately. Each piece will

be of the same thickness as the distance between the water lines. A sufficient number of these pieces are taken to make up the required depth, and are fastened together with a few screws so placed near the back as not to interfere with the shaping of the model, and on top of all the pine piece is screwed, making a block like Fig. 1.

This block is now laid on the drawing, each of the divisions marked on it and numbered and the lines drawn on each of the four sides. On the back of the block the sheer plan is drawn, omitting the keel, if any, which will be added afterward. The half breadths on deck are now taken with the dividers from the half breadth plan and transferred to the top of the block, the curve run in with a spline pinned to the spots, and the block is cut to the line A B C.

The lines on the bottom of the block are now squared up across the new face, Fig. 2, the heights of the deck line taken

from the sheer plan and set off on their proper stations, and a line A D E drawn through the spots. The wood is now cut away to this line on the curved side and the line representing the middle of the deck on the back, leaving of course the same crown to the block as it is intended that the deck shall have. Next the back of the block is cut to the lines of the bow, stern and bottom.

The block is now screwed fast to a piece of board, which latter is nailed or screwed to the work-bench, so as to hold it firmly, and cut to the shape desired by the builder, the midship section being first roughed out, then the ends being cut away, and all finally finished off with sandpaper. To complete the model it is mounted on a board, the keel added, being glued to the board, it is varnished, and screw eyes put in to hang it up by. The model itself should be screwed to the board so as to be easily removed.

To take the lines from the block model the pieces are unscrewed and each laid in turn on the half breadth plan and the edge traced thereon, giving the water lines, from which the body plan may be drawn in. If it is desired to make a model from a drawing already completed, the operation is reversed, the pieces or "lifts" are planed to the proper thickness, the stations laid off across each, and the half breadths set off, the curve of the water line drawn, and the piece trimmed away to the line. After a piece is prepared for each water line, all are screwed together and the edges rounded off, forming a fair surface.

It is sometimes necessary to take the lines from a solid model, to do which the sheer plan is traced on paper, the half breadths on deck, and the heights to deck line are taken off by the dividers, and the lines drawn on the paper, then the frame lines are obtained by bending a thin strip of lead around the model and tracing the outline of it on the paper in the proper position, shown by the deck and sheer lines. The drawing being completed, the next operation is laying down.

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